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1  Fjeld, Gabriel Hansen (I504307)
 
2 (Medical):Omkom i ulykke på Krokskogen da "han falt uheldig og brændte sig". Hafnor, Hans Nilsen (I502807)
 
3 11. Søn. e. Trinitatis (6. Aug for 1815) Olsdatter, Ane Johanna Ravn (I500633)
 
4 2. søn e. pinse Andersdatter, Helena (I503040)
 
5

Snorre Gode (norrønt Snorri Goði), egentlig Torgrim Torgrimsson (muligens født 963, død 1031), var en innflytelsesrik islandsk høvding, kjent fra flere islendingesagaer, særlig Eyrbyggja saga, hvor han er hovedpersonen.[1] I denne sagaen fortelles det at Snorre, som i utgangspunktet var en overbevist åsatrodyrker, var en av dem som bidro til at kristendommen ble innført på Alltinget i år 1000. Snorre lot deretter bygge en kirke på gården sin.

I tillegg til Eyrbyggja saga opptrer han også i Njåls saga og Laksdøla saga, og er hovedperson i den korte Ævi Snorra goða. Snorre var nevø av Gisle Sursson, far til Halldor Snorrason, og svigerfar til Bolle/Bollí i Laksdøla saga.

 
Torgrimsson, Torgrim (Snorre Gode) (I502079)
 
6

Hole Bygdebok Bind 3 side 385

 
Dahl, Andreas Pettersen (I504758)
 
7

Hole Bygdebok Bind 3 side 39 + 449

 
Moe, Hans Pedersen (I504760)
 
8

Hole Bygdebok Bind 3 side 39 + 449

 
Nilsdatter Stadum, Anne (I504761)
 
9

Hole Bygdebok Bind 3 side 39 + 620 + 639

 
Hansdatter Moe, Mari (I502908)
 
10

Hole Bygdebok Bind 3 side 620 + 639 +39


 
Olsen Helgeland, Kristian (I502907)
 
11

Hole Bygdebok Bind 3 side 39

 
Kristiansdatter, Anne (I502911)
 
12

Hole Bygdebok Bind 4 side 888 - 889

 
Gomnæs, Anton Kristoffersen (I504754)
 
13

- Borgermester i Middelfart, Adlet 1503.

 
Bernhoft, Erik Hansen (I502476)
 
14

 

Heimer og Åslaug Sigurdsdatter

Åslaug Sigurdsdatter, også kalt Kråka, var ei mytologisk trollkyndig kvinne i norrøn mytologi som opptrer i Snorre Sturlassons EddaVölsunga saga og Ragnar Lodbroks saga. Hun representerer et norrønt Askepott-eventyr.

Åslaug er datter av Sigurd Fåvnesbane og valkyrien Brynhild, men ble fostret av morens fosterfar Heimer[1]. Etter at Sigurd og Brynhild er døde er Heimer bekymret for Åslaugs sikkerhet. Han lager en harpe stor nok til å skjule piken og reiser deretter rundt som en fattig harpespiller, bærende på harpen som skjuler piken[2].

Når de kommer til Spangereid i Lindesnes i Norge tilbringer de natten i huset til Åke og Grima. Åke mener han kunne se et kostbart klede stikke ut fra harpen. Han forteller det til sin kone Grima, og hun overtaler ham til å drepe Heimer mens han sover. Imidlertid når de brekker opp harpen oppdager de ikke noe annet enn ei liten jente på tre år som ikke kan snakke. De tar seg av henne, men gir henne ingen omsorg, kun hardt arbeid. For å skjule at hun er av god ætt, soter de til ansiktet hennes, tvinger henne til alltid å være skitten og gå i møkkete filler. På grunn av dette kaller de henne for «Kråka» ettersom hun er like svart som fuglen.

 

Kråka malt av Mårten Eskil Winge.

Mange år senere kommer den store helten Ragnar Lodbrok til Norge etter at han hadde drept en mektig drage og blitt konge. Hans kone Tora Borgarhjort døde ifra ham og deres to sønner Agnar og Eirik. Han sender to menn på land for skaffe brød. Kråka er ute og passer kyrne. Hun bader selv om Grima har forbudt henne å gjøre det, og avslører dermed sin skjønnhet. Brødet blir brent fordi Ragnars menn ser hennes skjønnhet og glemmer å passe brødbaksten. Når de ikke har brød å gi til Ragnar forteller de ham isteden om den vakre piken.

Ragnar sendte bud på henne, og for å teste hennes klokskap ga han beskjed om at hun ikke skulle komme påkledd eller avkledd, ikke sulten og ikke mett, ikke alene og ikke sammen med andre. Kråka kastet da et fiskegarn over seg, beit i en løk, og ble fulgt av en hund. Om bord på skipet imponerer hun Ragnar. Hvert av hans vers slår Kråka tilbake med et motvers. Han tilbyr henne en dronnings kåpe, men hun mener at det er mer passende at hun bærer kullsvarte filler som før. Hun vil derimot ta imot kåpen hvis han kommer tilbake og tar henne med seg.

Kråka forteller Grima og Åke at hun kjenner til deres mord på Heimer. Hun vil ikke overlate dem til Ragnar, men spår at hver eneste dag i resten av livene deres vil bli verre enn den forgående, og den siste vil bli den aller verste. Så forlater hun dem og blir med Ragnar når han kommer tilbake. Han vil øyeblikkelig gå til sengs med henne, men hun avviser ham og sier at de kun skal dele seng når de er gift slik at hennes barn ikke blir frillesønner. Hun ber om at de i tre netter skal ligge i samme seng, dog hver for seg. Ragnar går med på dette, men på den tredje natten klarer han ikke holde seg og legger seg på henne til tross for hennes profeti om at det barn som så blir født vil stå seg ille. Senere føder hun en gutt med kun brusk der hvor det vanligvis er bein. Det er Ivar og han ble kalt for Ivar Beinlause.

Deretter besøkte Ragnar Lodbrok Eystein Bele, også kalt for «Ilråde», som var hans lydkonge i Svitjod. Eystein overtalte Ragnar til å gifte seg med den svenske prinsessen Ingeborg og forkaste Åslaug. Mens Ragnar er på veg hjem igjen, hadde tre fugler allerede fortalt Kråka om hans planer. Hun går ham derfor i møte og forteller ham sannheten om hennes edle ætt. For å kunne bevise at hun virkelig er datteren til Sigurd som hadde drept Fåvne, en farlig drage eller slange, forteller hun at hun vil bære fram et barn hvis øye vil vitne om uhyret. Dette skjedde og hun fødte sønnen Sigurd som ble kalt for Sigurd Orm-i-auga. Da Eystein Bele fikk høre at Ragnar hadde endret mening gjorde han opprør mot ham, men ble drept av Ragnars sønner på Kråkas befaling.

Under sitt siste hærtokt til England hadde ikke Ragnar Lodbrok hørt på Kråkas advarsler, noe som kom til å bli skjebnesvangert for ham. Da Ragnar ble kastet ned i ormegropen av kong Ælla II av Northumbria ble han beskyttet av magisk skjorte som Kråka hadde sydd for ham. Det var først da denne skjorten ble fjernet at slangene kunne bite Ragnar Lodbrok og således drepe ham. Ifølge sagalitteraturen diktet Ragnar kvadet Krákumál (Kråke-kvædet) den siste natten han var i live. Navnet på diktet henspiller på Kråka.

De fleste forskere (F. Jónsson[3], P. Meulengracht Sørensen) mener at Ragnar Lodbrok nok var en historisk person, men historiene rundt ham og hans hustru(er) som fortelles i de ulike fornaldersagaene betraktes som mer og mindre fri dikting.

 

 
Sigurdsdatter, Åslaug (Kráka) (I502116)
 
15

Torleif Benkestokk og Adelus Eriksdatter (Kruckow?)

18. april 1502[18] ble Torleif Benkestok stevnet for landskyld i to tun i Røneid i Luster. Torleif Benkestokk svarte at det var heimanfølgje for hans hustru, som da trolig var fra Sogn, men tapte saken. I 1505 ga Olav Aslakson 3 løpsbol i Høgi i Luster til sin slektning hustru Adelus Eriksdatter.[19] Opplysningen om at Adelus eide i Høgi ble senere brukt som grunnlag for å vise Benkestokk-ættens odelsrett til Høgi. Adelus kan ha vært gift med Torleif Benkestok, og var i såfall enke i 1505 siden ektefellen ikke er omtalt. Var hun gift med Torleif, må hun etter våpentavlen som ble laget i 1572 - et epitafium - i Brønnøy kirke i Nordland, ha vært av Kruckow-familien. Mor til Adelus har etter den samme anetavlen hørt til Smør-familien.[20] Hennning Sollied[21] mente at Adelus Eriksdatter først var gift med Hans Finnson og at de hadde sønnen Finn Hansen, og at hun så var gift med Torleif Benkestokk. Jordegodset som Benkestokk-ene senere eide i Sogn og Luster har da trolig kommet fra morsslekta hans.

I Birgitte Seeblads Norske Våpenbok, i Maren Jørgensdatter Staurs likpreken og i Trond Teistes aner fra 1660 omtales en Torleif Benkestok til "Talgø".[22] I Trond Teistes aner omtales Torleif Benkestokk som befalingsmann over Sunnhordland.[23] Talgø er nok det samme som Talgje i Finnøy kommune. Vi ser også at sønnen Trond i 1600-talls kilder blir oppført til Talgø, uten at noen samtidige kilder bekrefter det. I Rostgaards Norske Vaapenbok No 1[24]hørte Torleif Benkestokk til på ”Langøen” – Langøy. Vi må nok være forsiktige med disse opplysningene. Sollied skriver at det er overveiende sannsynlig at Torleif Benkestoks foreldre var Trond Benkestok til Talgø og Brynhild Torleifsdatter. Brynhilds mor, Ingeborg var datter til Ulvhild Jonsdatter Smør. Vigerust[25] skriver at eierne av Talgje var Olav Nilsson fra 1450, og deretter Brahe-slekten. Opplysningen om at Torleif bodde på Talgje mente han derfor var feil. Det Olav Nilsson kjøpte i 1450 og 1451[26] var Gard på Sør-Talgje. Det er flere garder både på Sør og Nord Talgje – så det kan være at han bodde på en av de andre gardene. Tore Vigerust[14] mente at han bodde på

 
Benkestok, Torleiv Trondsson til Talgø (I501526)
 
16

Torleif Benkestokk og Adelus Eriksdatter (Kruckow?)

18. april 1502[18] ble Torleif Benkestok stevnet for landskyld i to tun i Røneid i Luster. Torleif Benkestokk svarte at det var heimanfølgje for hans hustru, som da trolig var fra Sogn, men tapte saken. I 1505 ga Olav Aslakson 3 løpsbol i Høgi i Luster til sin slektning hustru Adelus Eriksdatter.[19] Opplysningen om at Adelus eide i Høgi ble senere brukt som grunnlag for å vise Benkestokk-ættens odelsrett til Høgi. Adelus kan ha vært gift med Torleif Benkestok, og var i såfall enke i 1505 siden ektefellen ikke er omtalt. Var hun gift med Torleif, må hun etter våpentavlen som ble laget i 1572 - et epitafium - i Brønnøy kirke i Nordland, ha vært av Kruckow-familien. Mor til Adelus har etter den samme anetavlen hørt til Smør-familien.[20] Hennning Sollied[21] mente at Adelus Eriksdatter først var gift med Hans Finnson og at de hadde sønnen Finn Hansen, og at hun så var gift med Torleif Benkestokk. Jordegodset som Benkestokk-ene senere eide i Sogn og Luster har da trolig kommet fra morsslekta hans.

I Birgitte Seeblads Norske Våpenbok, i Maren Jørgensdatter Staurs likpreken og i Trond Teistes aner fra 1660 omtales en Torleif Benkestok til "Talgø".[22] I Trond Teistes aner omtales Torleif Benkestokk som befalingsmann over Sunnhordland.[23] Talgø er nok det samme som Talgje i Finnøy kommune. Vi ser også at sønnen Trond i 1600-talls kilder blir oppført til Talgø, uten at noen samtidige kilder bekrefter det. I Rostgaards Norske Vaapenbok No 1[24]hørte Torleif Benkestokk til på ”Langøen” – Langøy. Vi må nok være forsiktige med disse opplysningene. Sollied skriver at det er overveiende sannsynlig at Torleif Benkestoks foreldre var Trond Benkestok til Talgø og Brynhild Torleifsdatter. Brynhilds mor, Ingeborg var datter til Ulvhild Jonsdatter Smør. Vigerust[25] skriver at eierne av Talgje var Olav Nilsson fra 1450, og deretter Brahe-slekten. Opplysningen om at Torleif bodde på Talgje mente han derfor var feil. Det Olav Nilsson kjøpte i 1450 og 1451[26] var Gard på Sør-Talgje. Det er flere garder både på Sør og Nord Talgje – så det kan være at han bodde på en av de andre gardene. Tore Vigerust[14] mente at han bodde påJordanger i Luster.

 
Kruckow, Adelus Eriksdatter (I501527)
 
17

Johan Henrik Triitzchler Hanck, Maler, født nærved Christiania den 26. Januar 1776, var Søn af Brugsfuldmægtig Claus Hanck (f. 1748, d. 1795) og Maren Kirstine f. Grefsen (f. 17501, han blev Student i Christiania (1795) og theologisk Kandidat 1801 i København. Aaret efter blev han Adjunkt ved Odense Kathedralskole i Skønskrivning og Tegning, og blev 1807, paa Kunst­akademiets Anbefaling, Stiftsbygningskonduktør i'Fyn. I 1815 søgte han om at blive Stiftsbygmester, men dertil turde Akademiet ikke anbefale ham, og en Plan til en »Centralbygning« for Fyn, der ind-sendtes til Akademiets Bedømmelse (1819), fandt ikke de bygnings-kyndige Medlemmers Bifald. Han blev 1806 gift med Madseline Antoinette Iversen (f. 1788, d. 1851), Datter af Bogtrykker og Redaktør Christian Henrik Iversen (f. 1748, d. 1827) og Marie Kirstine f. Nielsen (f. 1767, d. 1837), og overtog ved Svigerfaderens Død Redaktionen af Iversens Avis »Fyns Stiftstidende« og Bestyrelsen af Trykkeriet ved Siden af sin øvrige Virksomhed. Han døde den 23. Juli 1840 i København. Han har forfattet et Par Skrifter, han malede i Vand-farve og tegnede gærne Landskaber og Udsigter; saaledes gjorde han Tegningerne til »Udsigter fra Sanderumgaards Have«, stukne af Clemens med Text af M. Winther. Han er Fader til Forfatterinden Henriette Hanck.

(Erslew Forf. Lex. I, S. 563 og 754. Suppl. I, S. 663 og 915. demens' Nekrolog ved Fick. Skild. 1816, S. 477. Dagen 1835, Nr. 255. Odense Skoles Progr. 1814, S. 40. Akad. Priv. Medd.)

 
Hanck, Johan Henrik Trützschler (I500171)
 
18

Niels Jensen BildNiels Jonsen, död 5 februari 1379, var ärkebiskop i Lunds stift från 1361 till sin död.

Efter att ha varit kaplan åt Valdemar Atterdag blev han kanik i Roskilde och troligen även i Lund. Den 14 mars 1361 blev han vald till ärkebiskop, säkert på kungens inrådan. Han vigdes till ärkebiskop i Avignon. När han året efter kom tillbaka fick han Bornholm och Hammershus som förläning, men kungen släppte inte helt det omstridda ägarskapet.

Snart kunde han göra kungen en gentjänst. Elisabet av Holstein, som blivit förlovad med kung Håkan Magnusson, var på väg till Sverige när hennes skepp drev iland. För att förhindra äktenskapet, som var i strid med kyrkolagen och kung Valdemars ambitioner, hölls hon fången av ärkebiskopen i flera månader. När hon till slut släpptes hade Håkon redan blivit gift med Valdemars dotter Margareta. Vid bröllopet läste Niels Jensen sin första mässa.

Under den oroliga tid som följde fick Niels Jensen delta i flera fredsförhandlingar. Stiftet fick lida för att vara utan sin högste ledare vid dessa tillfällen. När det 1373 åter blev fred fick ärkebiskopen bringa ordning i rättslösheten. Han dog 1379 och begravdes i Lund.

 
Bild, Erkebiskop i Lund Niels Jonsen (I500760)
 
19

Skjoldungesaga forteller at Sigurd Ring var gift med Alvhild, datter av kong Alv av Alvheim, og at deres sønn var Ragnar Lodbrok. Når Sigurd Ring er en gammel mann er Alvhild død, og han kommer til Skiringssal for å delta i de store blotgilder. Der oppdager han en svært vakker kvinne ved navn Alvsol. Hun var datter av kong Alv av Vendel.[2]

Sigurd Ring ville gifte seg med Alvsol, men hennes to brødre ville ikke tillate det. Sigurd slåss da med brødrene og drepte dem, men han tapte likevel Alvsol. Hun hadde tatt gift som brødrene hadde gitt henne slik at hun ikke skulle falle i Sigurd Rings vold. Da hennes lik ble vist fram til ham, tok han henne om bord i stort skip, la hennes brødre ved siden av henne, og ga dem en skipsbegravelse ved å la skipet seile ut mens det brant. Sigurd Ring skal selv ha blitt dødelig såret i kampen med brødrene, og det skal ha blitt opprettet en gravrøys på stranden Ringshaug i Tønsberg.[3]

Ragnar Lodbrok etterfulgte sin far, men plasserte en underkonge på den svenske tronen, kong Eystein Bele, som senere ble drept av Ragnars sønner.

 
Alvhild (I502118)
 
20

Øystein Orre (død 1066) var en norsk høvding av Giskeætten. Han deltok i kong Harald Hardrådes tog til England og falt i slaget ved Stamford bro.

Øystein var sønn av Torberg Arneson på Giske og Ragnhild, datter av Erling Skjalgsson på Sola. I 1066 fulgte han sin svoger, kong Harald Hardråde, på hærtoktet til England. Da kongen ble overrumplet av Harald Godwinsson ved Stamford bro, bevoktet Øystein flåten med en del av hæren, men ved meldingen om overfallet dro han av sted for å unnsette kongen. Han kom frem først etter kong Haralds fall, og falt selv der sammen med de fleste av sine menn.

 
Torbergsson, Øystein Orre Giske (I501798)
 
21

Adalard (or Adalhardof Paris (c. 830 – 890) was the eighth Count of Paris, a count palatine, son of Wulfhard of Flavigny and Suzanne of Paris, who was a daughter of Beggo, Count of Toulouse.[1] Adalard followed his uncleLeuthard II.

Adalard had two children: son named Wulfhard and daughter called Adelaide of Paris (850 – 10 November 901). She married King Louis II of France and had two children with him.

 

 
of Paris, Adalard Count of Paris (I501135)
 
22

Adalbert I (died after 28 February 929) was the margrave of Ivrea, the second of the Anscarid dynasty, from the late 890s until his death. In the intermittent civil war that effecting Italy from 888 into the 930s, Adalbert initially strove to remain neutral, but from 901 on he sided sequentially with every claimant to the Italian throne.

He was a son of Margrave Anscar I, originally from Oscheret in Upper Burgundy. He succeeded his father at Ivrea between 896 and 900.[1] He initially refused to take sides after King Louis of Provence invaded Italy in 900, but after Louis's imperial coronation in 901 he recognised his authority.[1] After Louis was defeated by his rival, Berengar I, in 902, Adalbert changed sides. Shortly thereafter, by 903 at the latest, he married Gisela, Berengar's daughter, which was possibly the price of his allegiance. Although Adalbert is not recorded as being related to the king in any of Berengar's charters down through 14 August 908 and his marriage is not expliticly reference before 13 June 910, it must have taken place some fifteen years before he and Gisela's eldest son was sent was granted a county and a missaticum in 918.[1] With Gisela he had two children: Berengar, who succeeded him as margrave, and Bertha, who became abbess of Modena.

Between 913 and 915 Gisela died and Adalbert married Ermengard, daughter of Margrave Adalbert II of Tuscany.[1] From this marriage he had a second son, Anscar, later Duke of Spoleto. In 916–17 his primary concern wasSaracen raids. In 920–21 he joined those noblemen, many of Burgundian origin like him, who supported the candidature of King Rudolf II of Burgundy for the Italian throne.[1] Adalbert, with LambertArchbishop of Milan, and Count Gilbert of Bergamo, assembled a force in the mountains outside Brescia with the intention of marching on Verona and capturing Berengar there. When the latter got wind of the plan, he sent a troop of Magyar mercenaries to circle the conspirators and attack them from behind. In the midst of defeat, Adalbert swapped clothing with one of his soldiers and paid his own ransom at a low price.[1] By late 921 Rudolf had entered Italy and been recognised as king in the march of Ivrea and the archdiocese of Milan. Although Adalbert made a few appearances at Rudolf's court in the early days, he never frequented it as often as did his wife and his two sons.[1]

After his relative Hugh ascended the Italian throne, Adalbert appearances in the records are sparse. He apparently played no role in Rudolf's deposition and Hugh's acclamation.[1] He was probably gravely ill, since Liutprand of Cremona, writing in 924–25, already though him dead. His last recorded action, probably shortly before he died, was a donation to the church of Saint Andrew in Turin, which was witnessed by King Hugh on 28 February 929.

 

 
of Ivrea, Adalbert I (I501164)
 
23

Adalhelm of Autun was a Frankish nobleman of the 8th and 9th centuries from the Wilhelmid family, son of Thierry IV and the Carolingian Alda.

He was called as a witness in the charters of the foundation of the abbey of Gellone by his brother William, 15 December 804. Two other brothers signed these charters: Theodoen and a Thierry who is not mentioned in any charters.

That is the only ascertainable information about Adalhelm himself. On the basis of onomastics, two children have been assigned to him:

 

 
of Autun, Adalhelm (I502170)
 
24

Adbelahide or Adele or Adelaide of Aquitaine (or Adelaide of Poitiers) (c. 945 or 952 – 1004)[1] was the daughter of William III, Duke of Aquitaine and Adele of Normandy, daughter ofRollo of Normandy.

Her father used her as security for a truce with Hugh Capet, whom she married in 969.[2] In 987, after the death of Louis V, the last Carolingian king of France, Hugh was elected the new king with Adelaide as queen. They were proclaimed at Senlis and blessed at Noyon. They were the founders of the Capetian dynasty of France.

Adeleide and Hugh's children were:

A number of other daughters are less reliably attested.

 

 
of Aquitaine, Adelaide (I501006)
 
25

Adelaide of Tours (c.820-c.866) was a daughter of Hugh of Tours and his wife Bava.

She married first Conrad I, Count of Auxerre with whom she had two children, Hugh and Conrad the Younger.

After his death she probably married Robert the Strong,[1] whose children Odo and Robert I of France are perhaps hers. Since Robert was born in 866, well after her first husband died, he is more likely to be her offspring. His grandson was Hugh Capet, the first King of the House of Capet.

 

 
of Tours, Adelaide (I501085)
 
26

Adele (dansk: Edel) af Flandern (født i 1064 - ca. april 1115) var datter af Robert 1. af Flandern og Gertrud af Sachsen, datter af Bernhard 2. af Sachsen. Hun var dronning af Danmark og hertuginde af Apulien.

Robert 1. arrangerede ægteskab for Edel med Knud den Hellige af Danmark for at danne en danskflamsk alliance mod Vilhelm Erobreren, som havde indtaget England i 1066. Ægteskabet blev indgået i 1080 eller 1081.

Parret fik tre børn:

  1. Karl Danske (f. 1083 eller 1085, død 1127), greve af Flandern
  2. Cæcilia af Danmark (f. ca. 1085, død efter 1131), gift med Erik jarl af Västergötland
  3. Ingegerd af Danmark (f. ca. 1086), gift med Folke den tykke


Efter at ægtefællen blev dræbt i 1086, flygtede Adele tilbage til hjemlandet og boede ved farens og broren Robert 2. af Flanderns hof.

Da Knud blev helgenkåret, sendte hun smukke gaver til udsmykning af hans helgenskrin i Odense.


1092 blev der arrangeret et nyt ægteskab for hende, denne gang med Roger Borsa af Apulien og Calabrien. Med ham fik hun sønnen William 2. af Apulien (f. ca. 1095 eller 1097, død 1127).

Da hendes anden ægtefælle døde i 1111, var sønnen umyndig, og hun fungerede som regent i hans sted til hun døde.


Edel var karolinger, idet hun nedstammede fra Karl den Store via Karl den Skaldede, og capetinger via den franske konge Robert 2. den Fromme. Hun nedstammede også fra Alfred den Store. Hendes faster Matilda var gift med Vilhelm Erobreren og hendes halvsøster Bertha med Filip 1. af Frankrig. Hun var også i familie med de fleste af lederne af det første korstog: Robert 2. af Flandern var hendes bror, Robert Curthose af Normandiet hendes fætter, Steffen af Blois, gift med hendes kusine, Adela, og Bohemund var hendes svoger.

 
of Flanders, Adela (Edel) (I500879)
 
27

Alfred the Great (849 – 26 October 899) (Old EnglishÆlfrēdÆlfrǣd, "elf counsel") was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, and by the time of his death had become the dominant ruler in England.[1] He is the only English monarch to be accorded the epithet "the Great".[2][3] Alfred was the first King of the West Saxons to style himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons".

Details of Alfred's life are described in a work by the 10th-century Welsh scholar and bishop Asser. A devout Christian, Alfred's reputation has been that of a learned and merciful man of a gracious and level-headed nature who encouraged education and improved his kingdom's legal system, military structure and his people's quality of life.

 

 
Alfred (the Great) King of Wessex (I501184)
 
28

Anders Sunesen (cirka 11671228), ærkebiskopskolastiker og digter hørte til Skjalm Hvides slægt. Han var søn af Sune Ebbesen (d. 1186), en af de gæveste høvdinger på vendertogene ogValdemars tro rådgiver. Bror til Peder Sunesen, som var biskop af Roskilde fra 1191 til 1214.

Ungdomsårene tilbragte han efter Absalons tilskyndelse med filosofiske og teologiske studier i Paris, fortsatte dernæst med at studere retsvidenskab i Italien og England. Efter sin hjemkomst blev han (senest 1194) Kong Knuds kansler og domprovst i RoskildeSaxo Grammaticus fremhæver i forordet til sin Gesta Danorum, at Anders Sunesen ved sin overlegne dygtighed hævede kanslerembedet til noget langt højere, end det før havde været.

Da Absalon døde 21. marts 1201, blev Anders Sunesen hans efterfølger som ærkebiskop i LundPaven stadfæstede ham tillige som Sveriges primas og sendte ham palliet, det ærkebiskoppelige værdighedstegn. Snart efter besteg Valdemar 2. Sejr tronen; Anders Sunesen kronede ham, og han genvandt meget af hvad ærkesædet under Eskil havde måttet afstå til kronen.

I sin styrelse var Anders Sunesen ivrig for de kirkelige ideers gennemførelse, men tillige sagtmodig, mild og fredsommelig. Sammen med sin bror, biskop Peder, mæglede han forliget 1203, hvorved Lauenburg blev overgivet til Valdemar 2., imod at Grev Adolf III af Holsten blev frigivet, og senere virkede han for den oprørske Biskop Valdemars løsladelse (1206).

På et sjællandsk kirkemøde fik han vedtaget love om bod og kirkeorden, i sit ærkestift fik han gennemført bispetiende, der havde kostet Absalon hårde kampe, og ved mild formaning og sit eget rene eksempel fik han præsternes cølibat stærkere gennemført.

Særlig betydning fik Anders Sunesen som korstogsprædikant og leder af missionen i de baltiske lande; Fra 1203 prædikede han korstog mod esterne, der havde dristet sig til landgang iBlekinge, og 1206 fik han af paven tilladelse til at indsætte en biskop over de folk, han måtte omvende. I Riga, holdt han teologiske forelæsninger for de tyske missionspræster og rådede dem til mildhed mod hedningerne.

Senere var Anders Sunesen med paa Valdemar 2.s store tog til Estland 1219Sagnet fortæller senere, at ærkebispen under kampen havde knælet på en høj med oprakte arme; men da han ikke mægtede mere at hæve dem, veg de danske; hans præster støttede ham nu, og pludselig dalede Dannebrog ned fra himlen og blev sejrsmærke for Kong Valdemar og hans mænd.

Anders Sunesens forfattervirksomhed er ikke banebrydende, og i verdenslitteraturen indtager den ikke nogen høj plads, men dog er han Danmarks eneste store middelalderlige teolog. Hans vigtigste værk er Hexaëmeron, et teologisk skabelsesdigt skrevet på heksameter, bestående af 8.040 vers.

Ramt af spedalskhed vendte han tilbage til Danmark, i håb om at at trække sig tilbage. Da paven ikke godkendte valget af hans efterfølger, styrede han embedet til 1223. Han var en af landets mægtigste og rigeste mænd og skænkede rige gaver til Lunds domkapitel. På en af sine gårde i Lund havde han grundlagt det første dominikanerkloster i Danmark (1222). Sine sidste år levede han, næsten som eneboer, på Ivø i det nordøstlige Skåne hvor han døde i 1228, og begravedes i det nordre sidekor af Lund Domkirke. Ved sin død efterlod han sig et bibliotek på mellem 30 og 40 værker, hvilket i samtiden blev betragtet som meget stort.

 
Hvide, Anders (Andreas) Sunesen (I500883)
 
29

Anscar I (died March 902) was the margrave of Ivrea from 888[1] to his death. From 877 or 879, he was the count of Oscheret in Burgundy. He supported Guy III of Spoleto for the throne of France after the deposition of Charles the Fat in 887, but after Guy's failed attempt and the coronation of Odo, Count of Paris, he returned with Guy across the Alps, where the duke was elected King of Italy. In gratitude, he created the March of Ivrea in the northeast and invested his Burgundian supporter. He was a son of the count Amadeus of Oscheret of possible Bavarian origin with landholdings also in Tegernsee. Anscar was a counsellor of Boso of Provence and brother of Fulk, Archbishop of Rheims, who strongly supported the Carolingian dynasty in France. With Fulk, he probably invited Guy to France. Anscar fought on behalf of Guy's kingship in Italy. He battled Arnulf of Carinthia during the latter's invasion of 894 and he supported Guy's son Lambert after Guy's death that year. In 896, he was one of the few in the north to oppose Arnulf second invasion. After Lambert's death, he supported Berengar of Friuli as king and became his chief counsellor.

Anscar's wife was unknown, but he had only one son, Adalbert, through whom he was the progenitor of a dynasty, the Anscarids.

 

 
of Ivrea, Anscar I (I501166)
 
30

Ansgarde of Burgundy (d. 880/882) was a French queen of Aquitaine, but never of West Francia, the daughter of Hardouin of Burgundy. She secretly married Louis II of France before he was king; her sons became Louis IIIand Carloman II of France.

Because Charles the Bald wished to marry his son to Adélaïde de Frioul, he had to seek a papal annulment; this he did, and Adélaïde married Louis in February 878.

Ansgarde was thus repudiated, but at the death of Louis II in 879 she worked to ensure that her sons could mount the throne of France themselves. To that end, she sought to revisit the subject of her divorce with the archbishop of Reims. Adélaïde, however, was pregnant, and gave birth to a son on September 17 of that year, which thus called into doubt the inheritance of Ansgarde's own sons.

Ansgarde and her sons attacked Adélaïde's marriage, accusing her of adultery; consequently, Louis and Carloman mounted the throne together. However, both died without issue, and after a long and difficult process Adélaïde finally saw her son confirmed as Charles III, the only legitimate heir to the throne.

Ansgarde passes into obscurity after this episode, and the date of her death is not conclusively known.

 

 
of Burgundy, Ansgarde Queen of Aquitaine (I502175)
 
31

Asbjørn Selsbane var en norsk viking, mest kjent for at han drepte Tore Sel, som var Olav den helliges mann, noe som bidro til ufreden mellom kongen og Erling Skjalgsson. Han fikk derav navnet Selsbane.

Han ble drept av Åsmund Grankjellsson, kongens lendmann i Hålogaland; ifølge Snorre tok Tore Hund spydet som han ble drept med og brukte det under slaget på Stiklestad.

Han var sønn av Sigurd Toresson, som var bror til Tore Hund.

Fortellingen om ham finnes i Olav den Helliges saga, avsnitt 117-123.[1]

 
Sigurdsson, Asbjørn Selsbane (I501777)
 
32

Asser Rig (Hvide) (ca. 1080–1151) var en høvding på Sjælland i Danmark.

Asser Rig var sønn av stormannen Skjalm Hvide, jarl av Sjælland, og hans kone Signe Asbjørnsdatter. Asser Rig tilhørte dermed Hvide-slekten, en mektig adelsslekt i Danmark på 1100- og1200-tallet. Tidligere tiders historikere tilla Hvide-slekten å nedstamme fra sagnhelten Palnatoke som kjennes fra Jomsvikingenes saga, men denne bakgrunnen er noe uklar.

Asser ble oppdratt sammen med den senere danske kongen Knud Lavard, og ble senere fosterfar for dennes sønn Valdemar som også ble konge. Asser var gift med Inger Eriksdatter, som var av kongelig byrd da hennes mor var Cecilie Knudsdatter. Etter at faren døde rundt 1114 arvet Asser sin part av eiendommen og ble, hvilket hans tilnavn «Rig» tyder på, selv en rik og mektig mann. Han tok bolig på gården Fjenneslev (eller Fjenneslevlille) ved Ringsted og bygde Fjenneslev kirke hvor han også er begravd.

På Fjenneslev var det at hans hustru Inger fødte ham tvillingene Esbern Snare og den senere biskop Absalon (1128) samt datteren Ingefred Assersdatter (Hvide).

Da Knud Lavard den 7. januar 1131 ble drept av sin fetter Magnus den sterke, sørget Absalon og hans brødre for fosterbrorens begravelse, og deretter forsøkte de å få hevn for mordet. Under de påfølgende, langvarige urolighetene, som Absalon skal ha tatt del i, fant Knuds unge sønn Valdemar for en tid et hjem i Fjenneslev, og hvor grunnen ble lagt til det vennskap som siden bant brødrene Esbern og Absalon til ham.

 

Sammen med broren Ebbe Skjalmsson grunnla Asser Sorø kloster, et benediktinerkloster, hvor han levde sine siste år som munk. Han døde i 1151, rundt 70 år gammel, mens hans hustru døde i1157, rundt 57 år gammel.

 

 
Hvide, Asser Rig Skjalmsen (I500805)
 
33

Astrid Eiriksdatter levde i andre halvdel av 900-tallet og var datter av Eirik Bjodaskalle på Oprekstad (Oprustaðir[1], muligens identisk med Obrestad på Jæren). Astrid var gift med Tryggve Olavsson og mor til kong Olav Tryggvasson. Tryggve var, ifølge sagaen, sønnesønn av Harald Hårfagre[2] Hun var, ifølge Fagrskinna bosatt i Ranrike i det nåværende Bohuslän.

Da ektemannen Tryggve ble drept, sannsynligvis av kong Harald Gråfell i 963, var Astrid gravid eller hadde nettopp født sønnen Olav. Hun flyktet til sin far på Oprekstad, men dronning Gunhild (den mektige enken etter kong Eirik Blodøks og sønnene hennes (Eirikssønnene, ofte også benevnt som Gunhildssønnene) var etter dem og Snorre beretter[3] om en dramatisk og lang flukt hvor de prøvde å dra til Astrids bror Sigurd som var i tjeneste hos kongValdemar i Gardarike ved det nåværende Kiev. På veien ble de overfalt av estiske vikinger utenfor Saaremaa (Ösel)[4], kom fra hverandre og ble solgt som slaver. Olav ble, stadig ifølge Snorre, gjenfunnet i Estland etter seks år av sin onkel Sigurd. Olav vokste deretter opp i Gardarike.

Astrid ble senere, også ifølge Snorre, gjenfunnet på slavemarkedet i Estland av den norske handelsmannen Lodin. Han tok henne med til Norge og giftet seg med henne.

Astrids barn:

  • Med Lodin:

    • Torkjel Nevja
    • Ingerid
    • Ingegjerd

 

 
Eriksdatter, Astrid (I501842)
 
34

Baldwin I (probably 830s – 879), also known as Baldwin Iron Arm (the epithet is first recorded in the 12th century), was the first count of Flanders.

At the time Baldwin first appears in the records he was already a count, presumably in the area of Flanders, but this is not known. Count Baldwin rose to prominence when he eloped with princess Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald, king of West Francia. Judith had previously been married to Æthelwulf and his son (from an earlier marriage) Æthelbald, kings of Wessex, but after the latter's death in 860 she had returned to France.

Around Christmas 861, at the instigation of Baldwin and with her brother Louis' consent Judith escaped the custody she had been put under in the city of Senlis, Oise after her return from England. She fled north with Count Baldwin. Charles had given no permission for a marriage and tried to capture Baldwin, sending letters to Rorik of Dorestad and Bishop Hungar, forbidding them to shelter the fugitive.

After Baldwin and Judith had evaded his attempts to capture them, Charles had his bishops excommunicate the couple. Judith and Baldwin responded by traveling to Rome to plead their case with Pope Nicholas I. Their plea was successful and Charles was forced to accept. The marriage took place on 13 December 862 in Auxerre. By 870 Baldwin had acquired the lay-abbacy of St. Pieter in Ghent and is assumed to have also acquired the counties of Flanders and Waasland, or parts thereof by this time. Baldwin developed himself as a very faithful and stout supporter of Charles and played an important role in the continuing wars against the Vikings. He is named in 877 as one of those willing to support the emperor's son, Louis the Stammerer. During his life Baldwin expanded his territory into one of the major principalities of Western Francia, he died in 879 and was buried in the Abbey of St-Bertin, near Saint-Omer.

Family

Baldwin was succeeded by his and Judith's son, Baldwin II (c. 866 – 918). The couple's first son, Charles, named after his maternal grandfather, died at a young age. His third son Raoul (Rodulf) (c. 869 – murdered 896) became Count of Cambrai around 888, but he and his brother joined king Zwentibold of Lotharingia in 895. In 896 they attacked Vermandois and captured ArrasSaint-Quentin and Peronne, but later that year Raoul was captured by count Heribert and killed.

Baldwin also had a daughter, Guinidilda, who married Wilfred the Hairy.

Legendary origins

Medieval stories held that Baldwin was a scion of the Great Forestiers of Flanders a direct descendent of Lydéric who received his fiefdoms directly from Dagobert I -Merovingian King of the Franks- in 621 AD..

 

 
Baldwin I (Iron arm) Count of Flanders (I501182)
 
35

Baldwin V of Flanders (19 August 1012, ArrasFlanders[1] – 1 September 1067, LilleFlanders[1]) was Count of Flanders from 1035 until his death.

He was the son of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders, who died in 1035.

History

In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France in Amiens, daughter of King Robert II of France; at her instigation he rebelled against his father but in 1030 peace was sworn and the old count continued to rule until his death.

During a long war (1046–1056) as an ally of Godfrey the BeardedDuke of Lorraine, against the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, he initially lost Valenciennes to Hermann of Hainaut. However, when the latter died in 1051 Baldwin married his son Baldwin VI to Herman's widow Richildis and arranged that the sons of her first marriage were disinherited, thus de factouniting the County of Hainaut with Flanders. Upon the death of Henry III this marriage was acknowledged by treaty by Agnes de Poitou, mother and regent of Henry IV. Baldwin V played host to a grateful dowager queen Emma of England, during her enforced exile, at Bruges. He supplied armed security guards, entertainment, comprising a band of minstrels. Bruges was a bustling commercial centre, and Emma fittingly grateful to the citizens. She dispensed generously to the poor, making contact with the monastery of Saint Bertin at St Omer, and received her son, King Harthacnut of England at Bruges in 1039.[2]

From 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the co-Regent with Anne of Kiev for his nephew-by-marriage Philip I of France, indicating the importance he had acquired in international politics. As Count of Maine, Baldwin supported the King of France in most affairs. But he was also father-in-law to William of Normandy, who had married his daughter Matilda. Flanders played a pivotal role in Edward the Confessor's foreign policy. As the King of England was struggling to find an heir: historians have argued that he may have sent Harold Godwinsson to negotiate the return of Edward the Atheling from Hungary, and passed through Flanders, on his way to Germany.[3] Baldwin's half-sister had married Earl Godwin's third son, Tostig. The half-Viking Godwinsons had spent their exile in Dublin, at a time William of Normandy was fiercely defending his duchy. It is unlikely however that Baldwin intervened to prevent the duke's invasion plans of England, after the Count had lost the conquered province of Ponthieu.[4] By 1066, Baldwin was an old man, and died the following year.

Family

Baldwin and Adèle are known to have had three children :[1]

Some researchers, including Frederick Clifton Pierce and Sir Charles Oman, believe that there was a fourth child — Richard the Forester, who participated in the Battle of Hastings with his brother-in-law, William the Conqueror, and who later received a grant of the future site of Kenilworth Castle.[5] But this belief is not accepted by the other historians, including Charles Cawley of Medieval Lands and Stewart Baldwin of The Henry Project.

 
Baldwin V Count of Flanders (I500989)
 
36

Beggo (died 816) was the son of Gerard I of Paris and Rotrude, daughter of Carloman, son of Charles Martel. He was appointed Count of ToulouseDuke of SeptimaniaDuke of Aquitaine, and Margrave of the Hispanic Marchin 806 and followed his father as Count of Paris in 815.

In 806, William of Gellone abdicated and Charlemagne appointed Beggo to take his place in Toulouse and Gothia. He did not succeed his father in Paris, but was later placed in the comital office there, but did not live long after that.

He married either Amaudru, illegitimate daughter of Charlemagne or her niece, Alpais or Alpheidis, illegitimate daughter of Louis the Pious. Their children were:

 

 
Beggo Count of Paris (I501138)
 
37

Berengar I (c. 845 – 7 April 924[1]) was the King of Italy from 887, and Holy Roman Emperor after 915, until his death. He is usually known as Berengar of Friuli, since he ruled the March of Friuli from 874 until at least 890, but he had lost control of the region by 896.[2]

Berengar rose to become one of the most influential laymen in the empire of Charles the Fat, and he was elected to replace Charles in Italy after the latter's deposition in November 887. His long reign of 36 years saw him opposed by no less than seven other claimants to the Italian throne. His reign is usually characterised as "troubled" because of the many competitors for the crown and because of the arrival of Magyar raiders in Western Europe. He was the last emperor before Otto the Great was crowned in 962, after a 38-year interregnum.

 

 
of Italy, Berengar I Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (I501169)
 
38

Bergljot Håkonsdatter (født før 990 – død en gang etter 1050), datter av Håkon Sigurdsson, Ladejarl og Tora Skagesdatter.

Bergljot var søster til jarlene Eirik Håkonsson og Svein Håkonsson, som hersker over Norge etter at Olav Tryggvason falt ved Svolder i år 1000Einar Tambarskjelve hadde kjempet sammen med kong Olav ved Svolder mot Eirik Håkonsson. Bergljot ble gift med Einar en gang etter år 1000 for å bygge en politisk allianse og forsoning. Einar var en av de mektigste høvdingene i Trøndelag og i Norge. Alliansen var av stor betydning for å holde fred i landet.

Det er svært lite vi vet om Bergljot. Hun og Einar fikk to barn, datteren Ålov Einarsdatter som senere ble gift med Tord Foleson, og sønnen Eindride EinarssonKongesagaen forteller at Einride hadde arvet morsslektas vakre trekk, og av den grunn må Bergljot ha vært anerkjent som vakker, skjønt sagaen sier det ikke direkte.

Einar og Eindride blir drept av kong Harald Hardråde i 1050. Sagaen sier så:

«Bergliot var en storsinnet kvinne. Etter drapet på Einar dro hun til kongssgården for å oppmuntre bøndene til kamp, men da hun kom frem, rodde kongen ut av elven. Derved unnkom Einars banemann. Hun sendte bud til Håkon Ivarsson for å få ham til hevne drapene. Han var villig, men ble overtalt til å inngå forlik med Harald Hardråde, idet han fikk Magnus den Godes datter, Ragnhild.»

Deretter nevnes hun ikke mer.

 
Håkonsdotter, Bergljot (I502086)
 
39

Bergljot Toresdatter (født ca. 905, død ca. 962) var gift med Sigurd Håkonsson Ladejarl og mor til Håkon jarl som var norsk enehersker fra 970 til 995. Bergljot var datter av mørejarlen Tore Teiande (sønn av Ragnvald Mørejarl) og hans hustru Ålov Årbot, datter av Harald Hårfagre[1].

Julenatta, sannsynligvis 935, fødte Bergljot en sønn som ble øst vann over av kong Håkon den gode som var i julegjestebud hos Sigurd jarl. Kongen ga ham sitt eget navn, Håkon[2]. Håkon overtok jarletittelen etter at Sigurd jarl var drept av kong Harald Gråfell i 962 og etter at Håkon selv hadde drept sin onkel Grjotgard Håkonsson, sannsynligvis i 965

 
Toresdatter, Bergljot (I501993)
 
40

Bernard I (c. 950 – 9 February 1011) was the Duke of Saxony (973–1011), the second of the Billung dynasty, a son of Duke Herman and Oda. He extended his father's power considerably.

He fought the Danes in 974, 983, and 994 during their invasions. He supported the succession of Otto III over Henry the Wrangler. In 986, he was made marshal and in 991 and 995 he joined the young Otto on campaign against the Slavs. He increased his power vis-à-vis the crown, where his father had been the representative of the king to the tribe, Bernard was the representative of the tribe to the king [1]. Bernard died in 1011 and was buried in the Church of Saint Michael in Lüneburg.

Family

In 990, Bernard married Hildegard (died 1011), daughter of Henry I the Bald, Count of Stade (died 976). They had the following issue:

  • Herman, died young
  • Bernard II, his successor
  • Thietmar, a count, died in a duel on 1 April 1048 in Pöhlde
  • Gedesdiu (or Gedesti) (died 30 June c. 1040), abbess of Metelen (from 993) and Herford (from 1002)

and probably:

 

 
Bernhard I Duke of Saxony (I500993)
 
41

Bernard II (c. 995 – 29 June 1059) was the Duke of Saxony (1011–1059), the third of the Billung dynasty, a son of Bernard I and Hildegard. He had the rights of a count in Frisia.

Bernard expanded the powers of the duke in Saxony and is regarded as the greatest of the Billungers. He was originally a supporter of Emperor Henry II and he accompanied him intoPoland and negotiated the treaty of Bautzen of 1018. In 1019–1020, he revolted and gained the recognition of the tribal laws of Saxony, something his father had just failed to do. He returned then to war with the Slavs (Obodrites and Lutici) and drew them into his sphere of power and influence through their leader, Godescalc (Gottschalk).

He supported Conrad II in 1024 and his son Henry III, though he began to fear the latter for his closeness to the Archbishop Adalbert of Bremen, an inveterate enemy of the dukes of Saxony. Though he was a critical ally of the Danes, so fundamental to Henry's wars in the Low Countries, Bernard was on the brink of rebellion until the death of Adalbert. The remainder of his reign, however, was quiet.

In 1045, he erected the Alsterburg in Hamburg. He died in 1059 and was succeeded without incident by his son Ordulf. He is buried in the Church of Saint Michael in Lüneburg.

Family

Bernard II, Duke of Saxony married to Eilika of Schweinfurt, daughter of Henry of Schweinfurt. They had:

 

 
Bernhard II Duke of Saxony (I500987)
 
42

Bertha of France (fl. ca. 800), also known as Bertha of the Holy Roman Empire, was daughter of Charlemagne, King of the Franks.

Bertha was raised with her brothers and sisters in the royal household of Charlemagne, who had all of his children educated by tutors.

An offer by Offa of Mercia to arrange a marriage between Bertha and his son, Ecgfrith, led to Charlemagne breaking off diplomatic relations with Britain in 790, and banning British ships from his ports. Like her sisters, Bertha never formally married; it has been speculated that Charlemagne did not want his daughters married for strategic reasons, fearing political rivalry from their potential husbands.

Bertha was in a long relationship with Angilbert, a court official, which produced two children. During 794-5, Angilbert presented a poem as a court entertainment, praising the beauty and charms of Charlemagne's daughters; Bertha is praised in particular for having critical discernment and appreciation for poetry, which Angilbert points out is a cause for him to be concerned about how she might receive his poem.[1]

Bertha's children with Angilbert were sons Hartnid, about whom little is known, and the historian Nithard, Abbott of St. Riquier. Angilbert ended his affair with Bertha and entered a monastery, becoming Abbott of St. Riquier. There he did penance, according a biography written by their son, Nithard.[2] Angilbert remained an important advisor to Charlemagne, however. The children of Bertha and Angilbert were likely educated in Charlemagne's court. Nithard was a distinguished soldier and politician, and acted as an advisor to Charles the Bald of France.[3]

Following the death of Charlemagne, his successor, Louis the Pious, exiled his sisters to the convents that had been left for their inheritance by their father.

 

 
of France, Bertha daughter of Charlemagne (I502156)
 
43

Bertha (863-8 March 925 in Lucca) was the second illegitimate daughter of Lothair IIKing of Lotharingia, by his concubine Waldrada.[1] She was renowned to be beautiful, spirited, and courageous. Ambition, coupled with her influence, involved her husbands in many wars.

Between 879 and 880, she firstly married the Bosonid Theobald of Arles, who was a son of Hucbert, brother-in-law of Lothair II. With Theobald she had two sons: Hugh (882 – 10 April 947)[2] and Boso (885–936), and daughters Teuberga of Arles (890–948), and another daughter (d. after 924). Her second husband was Adalbert II of Tuscany, by whom she had two other sons, Guy (d. 3 February 929)[3] and Lambert (d. after 938), and a daughter, Ermengard. After the death of Adalbert II in 915, Guy became the count and duke of Lucca and margrave of Tuscany. His mother was his regent from his father's death until 916. Bertha died on 8 March 925 in Lucca.

Bertha is also known for her curious correspondence to Caliph al-Muktafi in 906, in which she described herself rather grandly as "Queen of the Franks". Bertha's letter is of interest in that she appears to have little knowledge of Baghdad politics or culture, and it is for this reason that details of her correspondence were recorded by one of the Muslim chroniclers. Bertha was seeking a marriage alliance between herself and the Emir of Sicily, unaware that al-Mukfati has little influence over the Aghlabid colony in Sicily. Moreover, the letter was written in a language unfamiliar to the Caliph's translators, and the accompanying gifts (among them a multicoloured woollen coat) which no doubt indicated a largesse on Bertha's part, were unlikely to have impressed al-Muktafi beyond their novelty value.

 

 
of Lotharingia, Bertha daughter of Lothair II (I501157)
 
44

Bertila of Spoleto (c. 860 – December 915) was the wife of Berengar I of Italy, and by marriage Queen consort of Italy and Holy Roman Empress[citation needed].

She was the daughter of Suppo II (c. 835 – c. 885), and of Bertha (dead by 921). Her paternal grandfather was Adelchis I of Spoleto, second son of Suppo I and father of Suppo II.

She married Berengar c. 880, becoming Queen of Italy in 888. However, her husband lost his throne in the following year to Guy of Spoleto. Berengar began to reassert his power in 896, after the fall of the Spoleto family, and the withdrawal of Emperor Arnulf from the peninsula; however, a defeat by a Magyar army, and the decision by the Italian nobles to appoint Louis of Provence as King of Italy, delayed the King and Queen's formal return to power until 905.

Bertila became Holy Roman Empress, after her husband was crowned Emperor in 915[citation needed]. She died in the December of the same year.

Bertila and Berengar had several children. By 915, their eldest daughter, Bertha, was abbess of San Salvatore in Brescia, where her aunt had once been a nun. Their younger daughter Gisela (882–910) married Adalbert I of Ivrea, who were the parents of Berengar II of Italy.

 

 
of Spoleto, Bertila (I501167)
 
45

Biagota was probably the wife of duke Boleslaus I of Bohemia.

Michal Lutovský writes in his book Bratrovrah a tvůrce státu (Fratricide and country-maker) that only a few coins confirm the existence of Biagota.

These coins are considered the oldest type of Přemyslid denar. An inscription can be read on them, BIAGOTACOIIIIX or BIAGOTACOVIIX, meaning BIAGOTA CONIVNXwife Biagota. Possibly these coins were made on the occasion of marriage, but there is no proof for it.

It is not even sure that Biagota was the mother of all four adult children of Boleslaus I (DobrawaBoleslaus II of BohemiaStrachkvas and Mlada of Bohemia). Her origins are unclear. She could have originated from one of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire or from a Slavic country (Blahota or Bjegota was an old Bulgarian name). Both hypotheses could be right, corresponding to the contemporary practice of European rulers.

 

 
Biagota Duchess of Bohemia (I501290)
 
46

Boleslaus I the Cruel, also called Boleslav I (CzechBoleslav I. Ukrutný) (c. 915 – 15 July, 967 or 972), was the ruler (kníže, "duke" or "prince") of the Duchy of Bohemia from 935 to his death. He was the son of Vratislaus I and the younger brother of his predecessor, Wenceslaus I.

Boleslav is notorious for the murder of his brother Wenceslaus, through which he became Duke of Bohemia. Wenceslaus was murdered during a feast; at precisely that time Boleslav's son was allegedly born. He received a strange name: Strachkvas, which means "a dreadful feast". Being remorseful for what he had done, Boleslav promised to devote his son to religion and educate him as a clergyman.

Despite the fratricide, Boleslav is generally respected by Czech historians as an energetic ruler who significantly strengthened the Bohemian state and expanded its territory. The pro-Christian religious policies pursued by Wenceslaus do not appear to have been a cause for Boleslav's fratricide, since Boleslav in no way impeded the growth of Christianity in Bohemia, and in fact actually sent his daughter Mlada, a nun, to the Pope in Rome to ask permission to make Prague a bishopric.

One of Boleslav's major concerns was the tribute paid yearly to the German (East Frankish) kings as stated in the peace treaty Henry the Fowler had established with Boleslaus' brother Saint Wenceslaus I. He stopped the payment shortly after he ascended the throne, which led to the prolonged war with King Otto the Great. Boleslaus attacked an ally of the Saxons in northwest Bohemia in 936 and defeated two of Otto's armies (from Thuringia and Merseburg). Then war deteriorated to a border raids (the general pattern of warfare in this region at the time), reached its conclusion in 950 when Otto besieged a castle owned by Boleslavs' son, Boleslav signed a peace treaty with Otto. Despite being undefeated, he promised to resume the payment of the tribute. Five years later, the armies of Czechs and Germans allied against the Magyars in the victorious Battle of Lechfeld on 10 August 955. Boleslav had also helped Otto to crush an uprising of Slavs (Stojgněv and Nakon) on the Lower Elbe in Mecklenburg in 953.[1]

 

Duchy of Bohemia during the reign of Boleslav I and Boleslav II.

Overwhelming invading Hungarians has the same benefits for Germans and Czechs. Less obvious is what Boleslav wanted to gain with his participation in the war against the oborite Slavic dukes in far north. Probably, Boleslav wanted to ensure that his powerful German neighbors did not interfere with him in spreading the Bohemian estates to the east.[2]

After the Battle of Lech, the rest of the huge Magyar army turned to Bohemia, where it was crushed by Boleslav. Because of this victory, Boleslav freed Moravia from Magyar raids and expanded his territory to Upper Silesia and Lesser Poland. To strengthen the Bohemian-Polish alliance, Boleslav's daughter Dobrawa married the pagan Piast prince Mieszko I in 965, and helped bring Christianity to Poland. Boleslav's wife may have been Biagota. He was succeeded by his oldest son Boleslaus the Pious.

 

 
Boleslaus I Duke of Bohemia (I501291)
 
47

Bořivoj I (Czech pronunciation: [ˈbɔr̝ɪvɔj]) (c. 852 – c. 889) was the first historically documented Duke of Bohemia (c. 867 – c. 889) and founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Bohemia was at these times subordinated to Great Moravia.

As the head of the Přemyslids who dominated the environs of present-day Prague, Bořivoj declared himself kníže - in Latin dux, which means sovereign prince - around the year 867 A.D. His title was later translated by German scholars as "duke" of the Bohemians (Czechs). Although the German dukes of the era held the same title, the meaning of his title was in fact completely different. In contrast to the German dukes, the Czech dux denoted a sovereign ruler.[citation needed] Bořivoj was recognised as such around 872 by his overlord Svatopluk I ofGreat Moravia, who dispatched Bishop Methodius to begin the conversion of the Bohemian Slavs to Christianity (see Christianization of Bohemia).

In 872 Bořivoj militarily supported Svatopluk in its dispute with East Francian king, Louis the German, and in south Bohemia they defeated the German armies. Bořivoj and his wife Ludmilawere baptised by Methodius (probably in 883), and the latter became an enthusiastic evangelist, although the religion failed to take root among Bořivoj's subjects.

In the years 883/884 Bořivoj was deposed by a revolt in support of his kinsman Strojmír. He was restored in 885 only with the support of his suzerain Svatopluk of Moravia. When Bořivoj died about 4 years later, his sons still minors, Svatopluk took over the rule of Bohemia himself.

As with most of the early Bohemian rulers, Bořivoj is a shadowy figure; exact dates for his reign and vital statistics cannot be established. Nonetheless, several major fortifications and religious foundations are said to have dated from this time. In old Czech legends he is said to have been son of a Bohemian prince named Hostivít.

 

 
Bořivoj I Duke of Bohemia (I501297)
 
48

Boso (ItalianBosone; died after 940?) was a Burgundian nobleman who spent much of his career in Italy, where he became Margrave of Tuscany about 932. He ruled semi-autonomously and was a benefactor of the churches of his region. He lost his office in 936 and probably returned to Burgundy.

Boso was the second son of Count Theobald of Arles and Bertha, illegitimate daughter of King Lothair II.[1] His elder brother Hugh was born in 880/1.[1] His family belonged to the highest ranks of the aristocracy of the Carolingian Empire and were related by marriage to the Carolingian dynasty and the Bosonids, the ruling family of Provence.[1]

After Theobald's death (895), Boso's mother remarried to Adalbert the Rich, then margrave of Tuscany.[1] Boso and Hugh inherited their father's counties. After the Emperor Louis III was blinded by his foes in 905, Hugh assumed the regency in Provence and the county of Arles, while Boso took over the county of Avignon.[1] In 907, Hugh and Boso entered Italy with an army in support of their mother.[a] In 926, after Hugh had become King of Italy, he appointed Boso regent of Provence.[1] In 931 he brought Boso to Italy at the same time as he made his son, Lothair, co-ruler in order to strengthen his position against the powerful margrave Lambert of Tuscany.[1]Lambert was the reputed son of Adalbert and Bertha and half-brother of Hugh and Boso. According to Liutprand of Cremona, the rumours of the time had it that Bertha, unable to conceive, in order to safeguard her second husband's succession, had feigned pregnancy and presented as her own two sons, Lambert and Guy, who were actually the children of others.[1][b]

In his earliest documented presence in Italy, Boso is found intervening on behalf of the Patriarchate of Aquileia on 17 October 931.[1] The first document recording his rank of "margrave" (marchio) dates to 1 July 932, when he persuaded the king to make a donation to the church of Saint Martin in Lucca.[1]

According to Liutprand of Cremona, when Hugh forbade Lambert of Tuscany to call himself a half-brother of the king, the margrave challenged Hugh to a judicial duel, which he won. In order to obtain the march of Tuscany for himself, Boso convinced Hugh to arrest Lambert; who was subsequently blinded in prison.[1] A more likely explanation than Liutprand's is that Lambert refused give up his quasi-independence and as a result Tuscany was taken from him.[1][2]

Few notices from Boso's rule in Tuscany have survived. Most deal with his interventions with the king on behalf of the churches of Lucca and Arezzo.[1] The last reference to Boso as margrave of Tuscany comes from 17 September 936, when he sent representatives to oversee an exchange of property by the diocese of Lucca.[1] Later that year, Hugh removed his brother from the march and placed his own illegitimate son, Hubert, there instead.[1][2]

Liutprand claims that Boso was arrested on suspicion of plotting against the king at the instigation of his wife, Willa.[3][c] Another possible explanation is that he continued to act as autonomously as Lambert had and Hugh removed him in favour of a more pliant margrave.[1][2] Boso had married his daughter Willa, named for her mother, to Berengar of Ivrea, one of the most powerful margraves in the kingdom. This aristocratic axis may have seemed like a threat to Hugh, precipitating Boso's downfall.[1][4]

In 940 a certain "illustrious count Boso" (inclitus comes Boso) made a donation to the monastery of Saint-Barnard-de-Romans. This is probably the same person as the margrave of Tuscany, since the monastery is known to have been patronised by Hugh and there were family possessions in the region.[1] By his wife, Willa, perhaps a daughter of Rudolph I of Upper Burgundy, Boso left behind four daughters: Richilda, Gisla, Willa and Bertha. This last married first Boso, son of Duke Richard of Burgundy, and second Raymond, the duke of Aquitaine.[1] It was to her that Hugh bequeathed his huge personal wealth and his Provençal possessions.

 

 
of Tuscany, Boso Margrave of Tuscany (I501146)
 
49

Cancor was a Frankish count, possibly of Hesbaye.

In 764 he founded Lorsch Abbey together with his widowed mother Williswinda as a proprietary church and monastery on their estate, Laurissa (Lorsch). They entrusted its government to Cancor's cousin ChrodegangArchbishop of Metz, son of Cancor's aunt Landrada. Chrodegang dedicated the church and monastery to Saint Peter and became its first abbot. The founders enriched the new abbey later by further donations.

In 766 Chrodegang resigned the office of abbot owing to his other important duties as Archbishop of Metz. He then sent his brother Gundeland, another nephew of Cancor, to Lorsch as his successor.

Cancor is probably related to the Robertians. His father's name may have been Rodbert, and Robert may have been his brother.

 

 
Cancor Count of Hesbaye (I501096)
 
50

Carloman II (c. 866 – 12 December 884), King of Western Francia, was the youngest son of King Louis the Stammerer and Ansgarde of Burgundy, and became king, jointly with his brother Louis III of France, on his father's death in 879.

 

Francia:
the realm of Carloman II after the division of March 880 is shown in blue

Some nobles advocated electing a sole king, but eventually both brothers were elected kings. Although doubts were cast upon their legitimacy, the brothers obtained recognition and in March 880 divided their father's realm at Amiens, Carloman receiving Burgundy and Aquitaine.

However, Duke Boso had renounced his allegiance to both brothers and had been elected King of Provence. In the summer of 880 the brothers Carloman and Louis marched against him, took Mâcon and the northern parts of Boso's realm. They united their forces with those of Charles the Fat and unsuccessfully besieged Vienne from August to November. Only in the summer of 882, Vienne was taken after being besieged by Richard, Count of Autun.

About the same time, in August 882, Carloman became sole king owing to his brother's death, but the kingdom was in a deplorable condition partly owing to incursions from the Norman raiders, and his power was very circumscribed. There were revolts of the feudal lords even in Burgundy.

Carloman met his death while hunting on 12 December 884 and was succeeded in the rule by his cousin, the Emperor Charles the Fat.

 

 
Carloman II King of Western Francia (I502177)
 

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